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Philipp Bozzini

Light Conductor
German physician, Frankfurt/M 1773-1809, born in Mainz, died in Frankfurt/M

Bozzini laid the foundation for modern endoscopy. He was the first to design and build a self-contained instrument with light source and mechanics to illuminate the interior cavities and spaces of the living body. However, the recognition of the medical world eluded him, and his light conductor was only later acknowledged as the first laryngoscope.

Alfred Hegar

Needle Holder, curved
German gynaecologist, Darmstadt, Freiburg i.Br. 1830-1914, born in Bessungen, died in Oberried

As Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Freiburg, Hegar was from 1864 onwards the author of important works on uterine surgery techniques, colporrhaphy, pregnancy diagnosis and childbed fever infection. He wrote the first textbook on surgical diagnostic investigation and designed a needle holder and pins for widening the cervical canal.

Maximilian Nitze

German urologist, Dresden, Berlin 1848-1906, born in Berlin, died in Berlin

Assisted by Wilhelm Deicke and Josef Leiter, Nitze invented the first apparatus combining optics, light source and water cooling system in catheter form. Nitze was also the first person to use an Edison light bulb in a cystoscope in 1886. Josef Leiter then embarked alone on serial production of the first endoscopes.

Hermann Snellen

Needle Holder
Dutch ophthamologist, Utrecht 1834-1908, born in Zeist/Utrecht, died in Utrecht

Snellen wrote extensive works in his specialist area of ophthamology: on astigmatism, glaucoma, inflammations, diseases of the retina and conjunctiva, and other eye complaints. He invented ophthalmetry, a system for examining eyesight , and devoted great attention to the calculation of spectacle lenses.

Ernst Wertheim

Needle Holder
Austrian gynaecologist, Vienna 1864-1920, born in Graz, died in Vienna

Wertheim gave his name to Wertheim's operation - radical uterine surgery with abdominal access and removal of the womb together with its appendages, connective tissue and lymph nodes. He also improved vaginal operative techniques and made valuable contributions to obstetrics.