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  1. Karges B. et al., Early hypoglycemia after accidental intramuscular injection of insulin glargine, Diabetes Med, October 2005;22(10):1444-1445.
  2. Vaag A. et al., Variation in absorption of NHP insulin due to intramuscular injection, Diabetes Care, January 1990;13(1):74-76.
  3. Frid A. et al., New Insulin Delivery Recommendations, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, September 2016; 90(9):1231-1255.
  4. Hirsch L. et al., Comparative glycemic control, safety and patient ratings for a new 4 mm 32G insulin pen needle in adults with diabetes, Current Medical Research & Opinion, June 2010;26(6):1531-1541.
  5. Frid A. et al., Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Injecting Complications and the Role of the Professional, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, September 2016;91(9):1224-1230.
  6. Blanco M. et al., Prevalence and risk factors of lipohypertrophy in insulin-injecting patients with diabetes, Diabetes and Metabolism 2013 Oct;39(5):445-53.
  7. Bantle J. P. et al., Effects of the anatomical region used for injectable therapy injections on glycaemia in type 1 diabetes subjects, Diabetes Care 1993;16:1592-1597.
  8. Frid A. et al., Clinically important differences in injectable therapy absorption from the abdomen in IDDM, Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 1993;21:137-141.
  9. Henriksen J. E. et al., Impact of injection sites for soluble injectable therapy on glycaemic control in type 1 (injectable therapy-dependent) diabetic people with diabetes treated with a multiple injectable therapy injection regimen, Diabetologia 1993;36:752-758.
  10. Bergenstal R. et al., Safety and Efficacy of Insulin Therapy Delivered via a 4mm Pen Needle in Obese Patients With Diabetes, Mayo Clinic Proceedings March 2015; 90(3):329-338.
  11. Frid A. et al., New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes, Diabetes and Metabolism 2010;36:3-18.
  12. Miwa T. et al., Comparison of the Effects of a New 32-Gauge x4-mm Pen Needle and a 32-Gauge x 6-mm Pen Needle on Glycemic Control, Safety, and Patient Ratings in Japanese Adults with Diabetes, Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, December 2012;14(12):1084-90.
  13. Valentini M. et al., Efficacy, safety and acceptability of the new pen needle 33G x 4 mm. AGO 01 study, Current Medical Research & Opinion Vol. 31, No. 3, 2015, 487–492.
  14. Sim K. et al., The Appropriateness of the Length of Insulin Needles Based on Determination of Skin and Subcutaneous Fat Thickness in the Abdomen and Upper Arm in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Metabolism Journal 2014; 38:120-133.
  15. Hirsch L. et al., Intramuscular Risk at insulin Injection Sites-Measurement of the Distance from Skin to Muscle and Rationale for Shorter-Length Needles for Subcutaneous Insulin Therapy, Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, December 2014;16(12):867-873.
  16. Hirsch L. et al, Glycemic control, reported pain and leakage with a 4 mm x 32 G pen needle in obese and non-obese adults with diabetes: a post hoc analysis, Current Medical Research & Opinion Vol. 28, No. 8, 2012, 1305–1311.
  17. Heinemann L., Insulin Absorption from Lipodystrophic Areas: A (Neglected) Source of Trouble for Insulin Therapy?, Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, May 2010; 4(3): 750–753.
  18. Famulla S. et al., Insulin Injection Into Lipohypertrophic Tissue: Blunted and More Variable Insulin Absorption and Action and Impaired Postprandial Glucose Control, Diabetes Care 2016;39:1486–1492.
  19., accessed on 17.08.2018, 16:56 CET.