Challenges of Neurosurgeons Are you excited to rethink your microscope?
We have realized that the neurosurgical workflow in the OR isn't perfect yet…
…the neurosurgeon faces several challenges with the current technology in terms of vision.
Shallow depth of field
Surgeons spend up to 10% of surgery time on microscope adjustments and work an average of 9 times per operation under a non-focused view. 
Limited field of view
On average surgeons work on the edge of the view field 11 times per operation.  The edges of the field of view are not visible on the monitor, which is used by the team.
 Eivazi S, Afkari H, Bednarik R, Leinonen V, Tukiainen M, E Jääskeläinen J: Analysis of disruptive events and precarious situations caused by interaction with neurosurgical microscope. Acta neurochirurgica. 2015; 157:1147-1154.
The visual axis and light source of optical microscopes are 3-6" apart. 
Inconvenient use of fluorescence imaging
Usually, either fluorescence image or white light image can be visualized, but not both at the same time. ICG fluorescence is visualized in 2D only. 
 Kalani MY, Yagmurlu K, Martirosyan N, Cavalcanti D, Spetzler R: Approach selection for intrinsic brainstem pathologies. Journal of Neurosurgery. 2016; 125:1-12.
 Schutt CA, Redding B, Cao H, Michaelides E: The illumination characteristics of operative microscopes, Am J Otolaryngol. 2015; 36(3):356-60.
True pioneers deserve a better view.
But that’s not all. There are also ergonomic challenges for the neurosurgeon.
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 Kerstin Pingel. 7 Tips For Better Ergonomics in Neurosurgery. Leica Science Lab. 2014.
For every inch the head moves forward, the head, neck and upper back muscles must support an additional weight of…
Potential consequences of this physical stress: 
 Kerstin Pingel. Ergonomically Designed Surgical Microscopes Support Performance. Leica Science Lab. 2014.