You have successfully logged out.
Understand the problem
Hydrocephalus, the excess buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, can affect all age groups.
We believe that the current treatment situation for hydrocephalus is not acceptable and better solutions have to be found – effective and reliable hydrocephalus shunts for neurosurgeons to improve the patients’ lives.
Treatment with conventional adjustable valves always means finding a compromise:
 Lutz BR, Venkataraman P, Browd SR. New and improved ways to treat hydrocephalus: Pursuit of a smart shunt. Surg Neurol Int 2013;4(Suppl 1):S38-50.
 Beuriat PA, Puget S, Cinalli G et al. Hydrocephalus treatment in children: long-term outcome in 975 consecutive patients. J Neurosurg Pediatr 2017 20:10-18
 Merkler AE, Ch‘ang J, Parker WE, Murthy SB, Kamel H. The Rate of Complications after Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Surgery. World Neurosurg 2017 98:654-658
 Browd SR., Ragel BT., Gottfried ON. and Kestle JR. Failure of cerebrospinal fluid shunts: part I: Obstruction and mechanical failure. Pediatr Neurol 2006 34(2): 83-92
 Ozturk S, Cakin H, Kurtuldu H, Kocak O, Erol FS, Kaplan M. Smartphones and Programmable Shunts: Are These Indispensable Phones Safe and Smart? World Neurosurg 2017 102:518-525
 Spader HS, Ratanaprasatporn L, Morrison JF, Grossberg JA, Cosgrove GR. Programmable shunts and headphones: Are they safe together? J Neurosurg Pediatr 2015 16:402-405
 Strahle J, Selzer BJ, Muraszko KM, Garton HJ, Maher CO. Programmable shunt valve affected by exposure to a tablet computer. J Neurosurg Pediatr 2012 10:118-120
 Anderson RC, Walker ML, Viner JM, Kestle JR. Adjustment and malfunction of a programmable valve after exposure to toy magnets. Case report. J Neurosurg 2004 101:222-225
 Zuzak TJ, Balmer B, Schmidig D, Boltshauser E, Grotzer MA. Magnetic toys: forbidden for pediatric patients with certain programmable shunt valves? Childs Nerv Syst 2009 25:161-164
 Freimann FB, Sprung C. Shunting with gravitational valves--can adjustments end the era of revisions for overdrainage-related events?: clinical article. J Neurosurg 2012;117(6):1197-204.
 Gutierrez-Murgas Y, Snowden JN. Ventricular shunt infections: immunopathogenesis and clinical management. J Neuroimmunol 2014;276(1-2):1-8.
 Drake JM, Kestle JR, Milner R, et al. Randomized trial of cerebrospinal fluid shunt valve design in pediatric hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery 1998;43(2):294-303; discussion -5.
 Pollack IF, Albright AL, Adelson PD. A randomized, controlled study of a programmable shunt valve versus a conventional valve for patients with hydrocephalus. Hakim-Medos Investigator Group. Neurosurgery 1999;45(6):1399-408; discussion 408-11.
 Merkler AE, Ch'ang J, Parker WE, et al. The Rate of Complications after Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Surgery. World Neurosurg 2017;98:654-8.
 Chiriac A, Poeata I, Iliescu B. Mechanical failures of ventriculo-peritoneal shunts. Romanian Neurosurgery 2012;XIX(3):226-9.
 Woerdeman PA, Cochrane DD. Disruption of silicone valve housing in a Codman Hakim Precision valve with integrated Siphonguard. J Neurosurg Pediatr 2014;13(5):532-5.
 Miyake H. Shunt Devices for the Treatment of Adult Hydrocephalus: Recent Progress and Characteristics. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2016;56(5):274-83.
 Powell A, Savin S, Savva N. Physician Workload and Hospital Reimbursement: Overworked Physicians Generate Less Revenue per Patient. Manufacturing & Service Operations Management 2012;14(4):512-28.
 Irving G, Neves AL, Dambha-Miller H, et al. International variations in primary care physician consultation time: a systematic review of 67 countries. BMJ Open 2017;7(10):e017902.