Hydrocephalus can be classified as:
- Communicating (CSF circulation via the ventricles of the brain is intact, but the absorption into the venous bloodflow is blocked) and
- Non-communicating or Obstructive (Circulation of CSF is blocked somewhere between the lateral, third and/or fourth ventricles.
Other classifications are:
Congenital hydrocephalus is present at birth. Children born with hydrocephalus may be diagnosed during the pregnancy or at birth. Often children born with hydrocephalus do have an abnormal head circumference. Congenical hydrocephalus can occur together with diseases like:
- Spina Bifida
- Dandy-Walker syndrome
- Aquaduct Stenosis
Acquired hydrocephalus can occur at any stage in human lifetime as a consequence of an accident, surgery, cerebral bleeding, tumor, meningitis and/or others. A special form of acquired hydrocephalus is the so called Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH). Normal pressure hydrocephalus describes a neurologic condition of ventricular dilatation in the absence of increased CSF pressure. NPH is characterized by a triad of gait impairment (a broad-based, shuffling, magnetic gait), urinary incontinence and a form of dementia.